A chemical reaction is a process that is usually characterized by a chemical change in which the starting materials (reactants) differ from the products. Chemical reactions tend to involve the movement of electrons, which causes the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. There are several types of chemical reactions and
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Stoichiometry deals with the calculation of the mass and volume of reactants and products in chemical reactions. The term stoichiometry was first introduced by the German chemist Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762-1807) in the late 19th century. It relates to the relative amounts of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
A phase diagram is a graph that is a representation of the phases present in a material at variations in temperature, pressure, and composition. This diagram is the basis of understanding for all heat treatment operations. In general, phase diagrams are constructed at equilibrium (the condition is very slow cooling).